A nonmathematical abstract, not exceeding 200 words, is required for all papers. It should be an abbreviated, accurate presentation of the contents of the paper. It should contain sufficient information to enable readers to decide whether they should obtain and read the entire paper. Do not cite references in the abstract. Do not put numbering for abstract heading.
2. MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION
These instructions are written in a form that satisfies all of the formatting requirements for the author manuscript. Please use them as a template in preparing your manuscript. Authors must take special care to follow these instructions concerning margins. The basic instructions are simple:
• Manuscript shall be formatted for an A4 size page.
• The top, left and right margins shall be 30 mm.
• The bottom margin shall be 25 mm.
• The text shall have both the left and right margins justified.
The manuscript should be organized in the following order: Title of the paper, Authors' names and affiliation, Abstract, Key Words, Introduction, Body of the paper (in sequential headings), Conclusion, Acknowledgements (where applicable), References, and Appendices (where applicable).
The author should provide a list of three to five key words that clearly describe the subject matter of the paper.
Keywords: Industrial wastewater; membrane bioreactor; biodegradability; fouling; flux.
5. THE TITLE
The title is centered on the page and all letters should be capitalized and set in boldface (font size 12 pt). It should adequately describe the content of the paper. An abbreviated title of less than 60 characters (including spaces) should also be suggested.
6. AUTHOR NAME AND AFFILIATION
The author's name(s) follows the title and is also centered on the page (font size 12 pt). A blank line is required between the title and the author's name(s). Last names should be spelled out in full and succeeded by author's initials. The author's affiliation, complete mailing address, and e-mail address (all in font size 12 pt) are provided below. Phone and fax numbers do not appear.
7. TEXT LAYOUT
The manuscript must be typed single spacing. Use extra line spacing between equations, illustrations, figures and tables. The body of the text should be prepared using Times New Roman. The font size used for the preparation of the manuscript must be 12 points. The first paragraph following a heading should not be indented. The following paragraphs must be indented 10 mm. Note that there is no line spacing between paragraphs unless a subheading is used. Symbols for physical quantities in the text should be written in italics.
8. SECTION HEADINGS
Section headings should be typed centered on the page and in capital letters only. The type, fonts and style above (Times New Roman 12 point bold) are an example of a section heading. Do not underline section headings. A bold font should be used for section headings. The headings should be numbered.
Subheadings should be positioned at the left margin, in a bold-faced font the same size as the main text (Times New Roman 12 point) with single line spacing above and below. The first letter of each word in the subheading should be capitalized.
Sub-subheadings should be typed using italic font the same size as that used for the body of the text (Times New Roman 12 point italics). Only the first letter of the subheading should be capitalized. Note that a blank line precedes and follows the subheading.
9. EQUATIONS AND MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSIONS
Equation numbers should appear in parentheses and be numbered consecutively. All equation numbers must appear on the right-hand side of the equation and should be referred to within the text. Two different types of styles can be used for equations and mathematical expressions. They are:
In-line equations/expressions are embedded in paragraphs of the text. For example, E = mc2. In-line equations should not be numbered.
Equation need to use Insert Equation. Equations in display format are separated from the paragraphs of text. They should be flushed to the centered of the column. Fractional powers should be used instead of root signs. A slash (/) should be used instead of a horizontal line for fractions, whenever possible; for example, use 2/3 for two-thirds. Refer to equations in the text as " Eq.(1)" or, if at the beginning of a sentence, as " Equation (1)". Vectors should be typed boldface. Do not use arrows, wavy-line underscoring, etc. Must using equation application in microsoft word.
10. FIGURES AND TABLES
Figures (diagrams and photographs) should be numbered consecutively using arabic numbers. They should be placed in the text soon after the point where they are referenced. Figures should be centered in a column and should have a figure caption placed underneath. Captions should be centered in the column, in the format “Figure (1)” and are in upper and lower case letters. When referring to a figure in the body of the text, the abbreviation "Figure" is used Illustrations must be submitted in digital format, with a good resolution (300dpi). Table captions appear centered above the table in upper and lower case letters. When referring to a table in the text, "Table" with the proper number is used. Captions should be centered in the column, in the format “Table (1)” and are in upper and lower case letters. Tables are numbered consecutively and independently of any figures. All figures and tables must be incorporated into the text (in Portrait orientation).
The use of SI units is strongly recommended and mixed units are to be avoided.
A conclusion section must be included and should indicate clearly the advantages, limitations and possible applications of the paper. Discuss about future work.
Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author for final checking. Corrections to the proofs must be restricted to printer’s errors: any other changes to the text, in equations or grammar, may be charged to the author. Proofs should be returned to the editors within three days of receipt to minimize the risk of the author’s contribution having to be held over to a later issue. The editors do not accept responsibility for the correctness of published contents. It is the author’s responsibility to check the content at proof stage.
14. PLAGIARISM CHECKING
A policy of screening for plagiarism has been performed using turnitin platform.
15. CITING IN THE TEXT
The references cited in the text should be indicated using the name of the author and the date of publication. Examples are as follow:
(a) If the name of an author is written as part of a sentence, the year published should be written in parentheses.
“Works by Yao (1993) have shown that in order to maintain the behavioural link between the offsprings and their parents, the use of crossover operator should be avoided.”
(b) If the name of an author is not written as part of a sentence, both the name and year published should be written in parentheses.
“ANN offers useful properties and capabilities such as non-linearity, input and output mapping, adaptability and fault tolerance among others (Haykin, 1999).”
(c) If there are two authors for a cited reference, both names should be written.
“In designing the model for non-linear system, the parsimonious principle (Soderstrom and Stoica, 1989) is critical because a nonlinear model involves an excessive number of parameters.”
“Syu and Chang (1999) successfully used neural networks to adaptively control Penicillin acylase fermentation.”
(d) If there are more than three authors for a cited reference, use et al. after the name of the first author.
“The algorithm can be calculated by applying Gram-Schmidt procedures as described by Korenberg et al. (1988).”
(e) If more than one reference materials by the same author in a same year are cited, use small letter alphabets (a, b, c, and so on) to distinguish them.
“Some of the basic principles widely used by many researchers are Lagrange-Euler (LE) equations (Uicker, 1965; Bejczy and Paul,1981), Newton-Euler (NE) equations (Luh et al., 1980a) and d’Alembert (GD) equations (Lee et al., 1983).”
“Luh et al. (1980b) presented an example of an acceleration control of robot arm/manipulator.”
(f) Cross referencing in not allowed in a thesis. Only primary sources should be used.
An acknowledgement section may be presented after the conclusion, if desired. Individuals or units other than authors who were of direct help in the work could be acknowledged by a brief statement following the text.
The Harvard format 6 edition referencing system is to be used. In the body of the text a paper is to be referred to by the author’s surname with the year of publication in parentheses. References should be listed together at the end of the paper in alphabetical order by author’s surname. List of references indents 10 mm from the second line of each reference and hanging by 1. Personal communications and unpublished data are not acceptable references. FONT 10pt with 0.5 indent.
(i) Single and multiple authors
Example (single author):
Veres, S. M. (1990). Structure Selection of Stochastic Dynamic Systems. New York: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.
Example (two or more authors):
Soderstrom, T., and Stoica, P. (1989). System Identification. United Kingdom: Prentice Hall International Ltd.
Luh, J. Y. S., Walker, M. W., and Paul, R. P. (1980b). Resolved-Acceleration Control of Mechanical Manipulators. IEEE Trans. Automatic Control. 25(3): 468-474.
Martin, A. M. (Ed.) (1991). Peat as an Agent in Biological Degradation of Waste. London: Elsevier
Lees, R. H. and Thomas T. R. (Eds.) (1974). Chemical Nomenclature Usage. Chichester: Ellis Horwood.
(iii) Corporate author/editor
Engineers Joint Council (1969). Thesaurus of Engineering and Scientific Terms. New York: Engineers Joint Council.
Writing Style for Various Types of Publication Materials in the List of References
Author (Year). Title. (Edition). Placed published: Publisher.
Theusen, G. J. and Fabrycky, W. J. (1984). Engineering Economy. (6th ed.) Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall.
(ii) Article in a book
Author of the article (Year). Title of the article. In author or editor of the book. Title of the book. (page). Place published: Publisher.
Hussein, S. B., Jamaluddin, H., Mailah, M. and Zalzala, A. M. S. (2000). An Evolutionary Neural Network Controller for Intelligent Active Force Control. In Parmee, I. C. (Ed.) Evolutionary Design and Manufacturing (pp. 351 –362). London: Springer-Verlag.
(iii) Journal articles
Author (Year). Title of the article. Title of the Journal. Volume (Issue no.), page.
Billings. S. A. (1980). Identification of Nonlinear Systems: A survey. Proc. IEE, Part D. 127(6), 272-284.
Author (Year). Title of the article. Title of the Journal. Volume (Issue no.), page. Publisher
Borman, W. C. (1993). Role of Early Supervisory Experience in Supervisor Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443 – 449. American Psychology Association.
(iv) Conference articles
Author (Year). Title of the article. Name of the conference. Date of the conference. Place, page.
Sheta, A. F. and De Jong, K. (1996). Parameter Estimation of Nonlinear Systems in Noisy Environments Using Genetic Algorithms. Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control. 15-18 September. Dearborn, Michigan: IEEE, 360 - 365.
Author (Year). Title of the thesis. Thesis award. Place published.
Adnan bin Hassan (2002). On-line Recognition of Developing Control Chart Patterns. Doctor Philosophy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai.
Name of the country (year). Title of the legislation. Legislation number.
Malaysia (1983). Perintah Monumen Lama dan Tapak Tanah Bersejarah. P.U.(A)41 1983.
Name of the institution (Year). Standard number. Place published: Publisher
British Standards Institution (1990). B.S. 764. London: British Standards Institution.
Author (Year). Patent number. Place published: Official source.
Smith, I. M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123, 445. Washington DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Author (Year). Patent number. Retrieved on date, year, from URL address of the patent database.
Ulrich, K. (2001). European Patent No. EP1162184. Retrieved on March 7, 2002, from fttp://ep.espacenet.com/
Name of organization (Year). Title [Brochure]. Place published: Publisher.
Research and Training Center (1993). Guidelines for Reporting and Writing About People with Disabilities. [Brochure]. Lawrance, KS: Macmillan
(x) Measured drawings
Author (Year). Title. [Measured drawing]. Name of organization: Place published.
Salim Man (1989). Pengisi Sekam ke Dalam Kontena Penyimpan: Pandangan Isometrik. [Lukisan Teknik]. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia: Skudai.
(xi) Unpublished materials
Author (Year). Title. Unpublished note, Name of organization.
(xii) Newspaper article
Title of article. (Year, date). Name of newspaper, page.
Gearing up to meet new challenges. (2000, February 22). The Star. p. 2.
Author. (Year, date). Title of article. Name of newspaper, page.
Izatun Shari (2000, April 18). K-economy: draft out in October. New Straits Times. p. 2-4.
Author. (Year, date). Title of article. Name of newspaper, Retrieved date, year, from URL address of the newspaper.
Rosmawati Mion (2006, June 17). Sindiket judi haram tumpas. Utusan Malaysia. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.utusan.com.my
Author. (Year). Title of article. Name of magazine, Volume/Issue no., page
Smith, B. L. (1994). Biofeedback. Science, 62, 673 – 675.
Author. (Year). Title of article. [CD-ROM]. Title of Journal, Volume, page. Publisher.
Ivry, R. B. (1995). Perception and production of temporal intervals across a range of durations. [CD-ROM]. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 21, 3-18. American Psychological